Itimd-ud-Daulah Maqbara, also known as the Tomb of Itimd-ud-Daulah, is a Mughal mausoleum in the city of Agra in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The mausoleum of Itim-ud-Daulah is frequently referred to as a “diamond box,” also known as the “Bachcha Taj” or the “Baby Taj,” and is frequently seen as an early draught of the Taj Mahal.
The structure includes various outbuildings, gardens, and the main building. The tomb, constructed between 1622 and 1628, marks a transition from the first phase of monumental Mughal architecture, which was based on white marble and pietra dura inlay and was most elegantly realised in the Taj Mahal, to its second phase, which was primarily built from red sandstone with marble decorations, as in Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi and Akbar’s tomb in Sikandra.
For her father Mirz Ghiys Beg, formerly a Persian Amir in exile, who had been given the title of I’timd-ud-Daulah, Nur Jahan, the wife of Jahangir, commissioned the mausoleum (pillar of the state). The Taj Mahal was built by Mumtaz Mahl, the wife of the emperor Shah Jahan, who was also known as Arjumand Banu Begum and the daughter of Asaf Khan. Mirz Ghiys Beg was also Mumtaz Mahl’s grandfather. Explore the astonishing beauty of Itimd-ud-Daulah Maqbara while staying at a resort in Agra.
Itmad-ud-Tomb Daulah’s Cenotaphs
The mausoleum is placed in a huge cruciform garden with water courses and paths. The 23-meter-square mausoleum sits atop a 50-meter-square, 1-meter-high base. Each corner has 13-meter-tall octagonal turrets.
The walls are built of white marble from Rajasthan encrusted with semi-precious stone decorations: cornelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, onyx, and topaz shaped as cypress trees, wine bottles, or cut fruit or vases with bouquets. Light enters through white marble jali screens. Many believe her interior design inspired Shah Jahan’s Taj Mahal.
The mausoleum contains several of Nr Jahn’s relatives. Only her parents’ cenotaphs are situated side-by-side, like in the Taj Mahal.
Mirza Ghiyas Beg and Asmat Beghum’s mausoleum. Iran-born Akbar’s servant. He was the father of Nur-Jehan and grandfather of Taj Mahal’s Mumtaz-Mahal. After Nur Jehan’s 1611 marriage to Jehangir, he became Vazir (Prime Minister). He had 7000/7000 mansab and the title “I’timad-Ud-Daulah” (The Lord treasurer). After his wife’s death in 1622, he died at Agra. Nur Jehan rebuilt her parents’ mausoleum in 1622-1628. Lahore has both her and Jehangir’s tombs.
I’timad-Ud-mausoleum Daulah’s is a domeless Mughal masterpiece. It commemorates the shift from redstone to white marble, from Akbar’s tomb Sikandra to the Taj Mahal. It recall the formal and decorative nature of its builder Nur Jehan, who governed the Mughal Empire for 16 years (1611–27).
Mirza Ghiyas Beg, Asmat Begum’s Tomb
The mausoleum is planned in the centre of a Char-Bagh (four-quartered garden), with surrounding walls and side buildings. The main gate faces east because of its location. North and south gates have ornamental grass. On the west side, a multi-story open pavilion overlooks the river. Red sandstone buildings with white marble inlays.
Shallow water ditches excavated in the centre of raised stone paved pathways split the garden into four equal parts. They’re only slightly raised from parterres that could be flower beds. Large plants and trees were planted just beyond the walls, leaving the mausoleum clearly visible.
The garden’s main mausoleum is made of white marble. It stands on a red stone pedestal with a lotus tank and fountain facing the central arch. Square mausoleum with octagonal towers topped by chhatris. Each facade features three arches: the central one is the entryway and the lateral ones are jalis. A chhajja and jali balustrade defend each side. The roof is a square barahdari with three arched openings on each side, except in the centre of the north and south sides. The chaukhandi (pyramidal) roof is capped with lotus petals and kalash finials. The interior has a central square hall with the cenotaphs of Asmat Begum and Mirza Ghiyas, four oblong rooms on the sides, and four square rooms on the corners. The hall’s cenotaph honours Asmat Begum. Corner rooms have relatives’ tombstones.
This tomb’s polychrome decoration is its highlight. Inlay and mosaic techniques were used to create floral, stylized, arabesque, and geometrical decorations on the façade. Wine container, dish, cup, cypress, honeysuckle, guldasta (flower bouquet), and other Iranian elements are prominent. Some works were inspired by Ustad Mansur Naqqash, Jehangir’s “fauna and flora” painter. Some stylised designs are carved incised and relief. Ivory embroidery. They’re delicate. Inside are stucco and painted animal and human figures. Contemporary painting inspired him. No glazed tiles are used, and coloured stones are used for adornment. It’s the most ornate Mughal structure. It shows that “the Mughals began like Titans and ended like jewellers” Quran chapters 48 and 73 are engraved on 64 ground-floor panels. Last panel mentions A.H. 1037/1627 A.D. The upper pavilion’s 12 interior panels contain Quran Chapter 67.